Stains are dyes dissolved in a solvent and used to dye wood, which penetrate into the wood fibres and change the colour of the wood as pigments that are deposited undissolved on the surface of the wood.
A stain should emphasise the grain and improve the appearance of the wood, be easy to apply, should be compatible with the coating and should have a relatively short drying time, should be as lightfast as possible and should not fade out.
THE CORRECT PICKET
The choice of stain should be based less on the colour than on its property, and the same colour effect can be achieved with different stains, so your decision should be based on several considerations: How fast should the stain dry, what type of wood and coating material should be used, and how much stress is placed on the work piece in the future? Does the stain have to match an existing shade?
Stains are applied with a brush or with a non-fluffy cotton cloth, excess stain can also be removed with the cloth.
TIPS AND TRICKS
Pickling may dry lighter, but the subsequent surface treatment will darken it again, so try this on a wood residue or an inconspicuous place.
Pickling can make any surface darker, but it is impossible to lighten a colour without using bleach.
A dark stain shows a stronger effect on a lighter wood than on a darker one.
Avoid pickling by first machining the underside of the workpiece.
Always apply stain wet-on-wet, so that the surface does not get stained.
Plan the staining application in advance to obtain a uniform colouring.
If you moisten the work piece a little before applying, you will get an idea of how the colour shade is changed by applying a clear coating agent before or after staining.
Do not attempt to apply the desired shade of colour in one pass, as this can be achieved by successive orders.
Do not use solvent stains under spray paints, they can cause discolouration and poor adhesion of the paint.
The first stripes of paintbrushes are therefore often darker, so it is better to apply the stain with a cloth.
If the alcohol stain dries too quickly, you can add a little shellac to facilitate application.
WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW
Pickling can be used for any kind of wood, especially if the grain is very interesting and can be emphasized by the pickling.
The surface to be stained must be well prepared, cleaned and sanded to remove all traces of dirt and grease, rough wood areas absorb much more staining liquid, therefore they must be prepared very carefully and moistened with water before staining or leave them with thin shellac primer.
Water staining requires a drying time of 24 hours.
A shellac sealant is fully cured after 30-40 minutes.
Alcohol stains are already dry after 5 minutes
Solvent bite requires 30-40 minutes of dry cite.
Dispersion pickles dry in about one hour
Wax stains should rest overnight.
Water stains are produced in powder or crystal form and dissolved in water, making them much more environmentally friendly than other stains, and the dyes obtained from trees and plants and the stains produced from them are available in specialist shops.
The most important dyes are Van-Dyck-brown, Mahogany-brown (a warm brown), Walnut (a yellowish brown) and Nigrosine (black), which can be mixed together to obtain the colour shade you want.
. protective gloves
. color pigments
. glass or ceramic bowl
. stirring rod made of wood
. cotton cloth
. shellac primer
. fine brushes
. 320 grit paper
. sanding block
. dust cloth
. small brush
WORKING WITH COLOUR CRYSTALS
Color crystals dissolved in hot water were the most common pickling method before the water-soluble acrylic stains appeared, producing a brown tone whose intensity is controlled by the dilution.
1) Wear protective gloves and put the colour crystals in a glass or ceramic container with boiling water, stir with a wooden spoon or stirring stick until the crystals dissolve and the more colouring agent you add, the more intense the colour will be.
2)Test the paint in a concealed area and then moisten the surface to be treated with a wet lint-free cloth so that the stain can spread evenly.
3) Apply the stain evenly with the cloth and follow the wood grain.
4)When the whole surface is wet, wipe the excess stain with a dry clean cloth, but do not wipe the wood dry.
5)When the stain has dried out after 24 hours, seal the surface with shellac, always work in rapid steps towards the grain so that the surface remains moist and no spots are already dry, which would result in unevenness.
6) When the seal is dry, after 30-40 minutes, carefully sand the surface with 320 sandpaper.
7)With a dust cloth, remove your sanding marks and use the cloth more often so that no dust particles are left behind.
8)Points and surfaces that have not been reached by the stain are now treated with a fine brush and the original stain.
Water-based acrylic stains are available in a variety of colours that can be mixed with each other, non-flammable odourless water colours can be used for all types of wood, they dry very quickly and are non-hazardous and non-toxic, acrylic stains do not penetrate into the wood but only cover the surface, but they should not be applied with more than two coats, otherwise the surface can become stained.
. acrylic stain
. cotton cloth
. protective gloves
. small brush
1)With a soft cloth and clear water, moisten the wood surface so that the wood stain can spread better.
2)As acrylic stain does not develop toxic fumes, it is ideal for small jobs in the house, put gloves on, pour the stain into a glass bowl and immerse the cloth in the liquid.
3) Now apply the stain to all surfaces and hold the work piece as horizontally as possible so that the stain is evenly distributed and no colour splinters occur.
4)With a clean, slightly damp cloth, wipe over the stained surface.
Because of the wide range of colours, you can be used by carpenters, and alcohol stains can be applied with a brush, a rag or a spray gun and are also used in dipping processes.
These stains consist of finely ground pigments dispersed in a liquid (fine distribution). dispersion stains cause an easily covering colouring of the wood. they are suitable for the visual improvement of inferior wood types, as they make the wood more intensive and thus more attractive and are applied with a bristle and a cloth. you must absolutely wipe off superfluous stains, otherwise the surface becomes fle
NON-GRAIN-RAISING BEIZEN (NGR)
These stainings are only available in liquid form and are dissolved in a waterless solution of organic hydrocarbons such as kerosene, which are perhaps the best because they meet all your requirements at once: they dry quickly, absorb well, are lightfast and come in all colours, and can be applied with a brush or rag.
These stains are offered ready mixed, the colouring agents are dissolved in turpentine, naphtha or any other carbon water solution. oil stains can be used for any kind of wood and are very popular with carpenters. the offer is very large. the stains penetrate deep into the wood and are excellent for exterior work because water-soluble stains have a too long drying time and the alcohol stains are too quick to dry in order to treat larger areas.
Chemical pickling has been used for centuries and produces a wide variety of effects, but in fact it is not a suitable pickling process. most of these stains are colourless and do not change the colour of the wood, but rather change its colour by a chemical reaction of the pickling with the wood or one of its constituents, such as the tannin contained in oak wood.
Wax stains are wax emulsions that are available in different shades as a pickling solution and can be applied directly to the wood or to an existing stain. wax stains must not be used under coatings such as polyurethane or acid-hardening lacquers, but they are very well suited for embedding profiles, carvings or woodturning work.
COVERING AN INTARSIA
The colour contrast between different inlays can be lost when etching a work piece, apply a white or clear polish to protect the inlays.
. ink brush
White or transparent polish
. cotton cloth
. water or oil stain